Most crucially, each sentence received a manual annotation of the disambiguiated sense of the pertinent prepositions, both in terms of supersense (following Kiss et al. 2020) and specific subsenses (as also described in Kiss et al. 2020).
PrepSensNZZ can be used to understand the annotation described in Kiss et al. 2020, but also as a stand-alone gold standard for preposition sense disambiguation and related tasks.

It contains

  • 2,466 examples for the preposition bei (‘by’, ‘at’),
  • 1,844 examples for gegen (‘against’),
  • 1,799 examples for in (‘in’),
  • 1,093 for ohne (‘without’),
  • 2,555 examples for über (‘over’, ‘above’),
  • 6,366 examples for unter (‘under’, ‘below’),
  • and 2,933 examples for wegen (‘because’).

Receiving PrepSensNZZ

We gladly share some of the valuable data we generated for not-for-profit researchers at other universities.

You can get access in a few steps:
1 – Send us an email to
2 - We will respond as soon as possible and send you the data.